We have had difficulties in choosing an image for the Universe. The question was how to put something unbounded into
a bounded frame.
Is the Universe unbounded? It should be because it, by definition, includes any possible bound.
So it can not be created, it includes, by definition any Creator. There is no place outside of it. Any possible Creator
should be the whole of it, or possibly a part of it.
Its structure ? Well when we look at it in our scale we see empty volumes and full volumes. Empty does nothing, full can
not occupy the same volume with another full, interacts. Interacts if it moves and it moves, they all move. They should be moving, because we observe they interact. It is probably, at any scale,
all over the same uni"verse".
It seems to be more than verse, the basic elements of it should be existing all around, all the time. Verse seems to be
product of intelligence.
UNI SIDE STORY
We want to understand the gears and wheels of constructing verse out of unis. First is a very brief summary due.
It seems that we first got the idea of "uni"s, the atoms, about 400 B.C. with Democritus. He is said to have the
habit of traveling and he also seems to be the first traveler to micro scales. The theory of him and Leucippus held that everything is composed of "atoms". Their atoms were
indivisible, indestructible, always in motion and infinitely many, which differ in shape, and size
Shortly after them our voyage turned to the macro scale. 400 years were respectively short at that time and modern
scientific methods and instruments failed.
We have revisited the atom about 2400 years later with Bohr's atom. It could not explain the discrete atomic absorbtion
and emission spectra and was replaced by quantum mechanical atoms.
the adventure of the atom was longer then we have summarized.
In 1809 we see Dalton's atomic theory.
Thompson theorized in 1904, that the atom was a positively charged "nebulous cloud" which contained evenly dispersed negatively
By 1911, Ernest Rutherford and his two assistants Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden had concluded that the Plum Pudding Model
was incorrect based on their Gold Foil Experiment. A great part of the atom should be empty. Moving electrons around a nucleus should radiate, so this was a nonstable atom.
In 1913 Bohr quantized the orbitals but quantization was ad hoc and the model did not work for more than 1 electron.
QUANTUM MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics is a mathematical model. We have heard first hand from a "mitmacher" that it is suggested to Erwin
Schroedinger as he was looking to explain the discrete spectra by a mathematician with "Look for a differential equation, they have both continuous and discrete spectra."
There were many opposing physicist at the very beginning, many of them thought of hidden variables but none succeeded.
Need of hidden variables is to be seen easily if ones look at the probability distributions carefully. An electron, a single particle, can hardly move within the regions around a
Two ends of the atomic adventure may possibly be brought together via the assumptions we once made. Waves may be constructed a la
Kirchoff. Construction of wave packets may also be tried. We spoke this with many people on our way: Some said very inconvenient, some said a long way to go.
Not only the long way but we seem to have a problem on the macro. With the followings we will try to explain this
THE OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE
On the way to understand the Universe we here began with the microcosmos. To repeat the summary we have to say we have
a mathematichal model but we do not understand microcosmos. As for light, our mathemathical wave, the light, happens to travel about the 1000 l.y. distance between the Belt
Stars to Earth via absolute vacuum. We have given up Aether. We suspect dark matter we can not observe and of course not understand.
We make extrapolations. We observe gravity on Earth but we can not under- stand gravity. We claim the structure of space, being curved, produces that
force. Just a play with tensors. In our neighborhood this force is linear. We extrapolate this linearity and produce black holes. We forget asking the question if such an amount
of matter comes together the linearity, the super- position, is still to be expected to hold.
A very basic observation we made is the red shift. The frequency of light we
observe from distant stars appears us lower, light shows a tendency to shift to long wavelength colors, red . The
distant the star, the more is the shift. That means the star is moving away from us. Looking at the structure of Milky Way, quite understandable. This region of the Universe
may be denser in comparison with the surrounding regions and the matter in this region may expand.
In infinite time it may have happened to be so many times oscillated. Is it reasonablae to deduce from this probably temporary expansion that the Universe
including the empty space is expanding and the observable universe is bounded? That is, up a definite bound light can not enter into our part of the Universe as depicted in the figure above?
Is it not possible that the matter in our part expands but light from outside may enter as well ?
Distant light more than 13 billion l.y. may or may not enter into our territory. Is that of this importance? We as individuals live some 70-80 years
in average. What we see from an object 10000 l.y. away is the 10000 years old form. We can never be effective on these far objectts. If it is understanding, I would rather
understand the micro in my near vicinity.
We do of course not claim that it does not make sense to make astrophyical and astronomical research. I suggest to concentrate on things that interest us
and on which we may have effects if possible.
Otherwise our situation turns to be analogous to the monks of Constantinople. They are said to discuss if the angels had wings as the city is conquered.
As we have mentioned in a
previous page we are face to face with self extinction. The predictions seem to be realized. There also seems to be space related revelations which happen to be quite true.
Of these I will mention in the following pages. I think we have to conduct research on these subjects, urgently !